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Morocco
 


Preamble of the Moroccan Constitution 

True to the irreversible choice it has made to build a democratic State based on the rule of law, the Kingdom of Morocco resolutely continues the process of consolidating and strengthening the institutions of a modern State, on the basis of the principles of participation, pluralism and good governance. It seeks to build an inclusive society, in which all citizens enjoy security, freedom, equal opportunity, respect for their dignity, in addition to social justice, within the framework of the intrinsic relationship between the rights and duties of citizenship.

As a fully sovereign Muslim State committed to its national unity and territorial integrity, the Kingdom of Morocco shall seek to preserve its diverse, indivisible national identity. Its unity, which is built on the convergence of its Arab-Islamic, Amazigh and Saharan-Hassani components, is nurtured and enriched by African, Andalusian, Hebraic and Mediterranean constituents. The prominence given to the Islamic religion in the national frame of reference goes hand in hand with the commitment of the Moroccan people to the values of openness, moderation, tolerance and dialogue for the promotion of mutual understanding among all cultures and civilizations.

As an active member of international organizations, the Kingdom of Morocco, aware of the need to strengthen its role in the international arena, pledges to subscribe to the principles, rights and duties stipulated in the respective charters and conventions of these organizations. It reaffirms its commitment to human rights as they are universally recognized, as well as its determination to continue to endeavor for the preservation of world peace and security.

Based on these immutable values and principles, and consistent with a strong desire to consolidate the ties of brotherhood, cooperation, solidarity and constructive partnership with other states, and to work towards shared progress, the Kingdom of Morocco , as a united, fully sovereign State belonging to the Greater Maghreb, reaffirms and vows to work for the following:

  • build the Maghreb Union, as a strategic option;
  • deepen the sense of belonging to the Arab-Islamic Ummah, and strengthen the bonds of brotherhood and solidarity with Arab-Islamic sister nations;
  • strengthen relations of cooperation and solidarity with the peoples and countries of Africa, including the Sahara and Sahel countries;
  • strengthen the relations of close cooperation and partnership with neighboring countries in the Euro-Mediterranean region;
  • expand and diversify relations of friendship as well as human, economic, scientific, technical and cultural ties with all countries;
  • consolidate South-South cooperation;
  • protect and promote the human rights system and international humanitarian law, and contribute to their development, taking into account their indivisible, universal character;
  • prohibit and combat discrimination against anyone on the grounds of sex, color, creed, culture, social or regional background, language, disability or any other personal consideration;
  • grant international conventions duly ratified by the Kingdom supremacy over domestic laws - within the framework of the provisions of the Constitution, the laws of the Kingdom, and respect for its immutable national identity, and as soon as these conventions are published - and bring the national legislative provisions concerned in line with the above conventions.
This Preamble shall be an integral part of the Constitution.

Geography
Perched on the upper North-west corner of Africa, and beaconing to Europe over the Gibraltar Straits, Morocco shares borders with Algeria in the east and with Mauritania in the south. Bordered by the Mediterranean Sea in the North and the Atlantic Ocean in the West, Morocco has a coast that extends over 3,500 Km.

Population
According to the 2004 general population and housing census the population of Morocco counts a little more than 30 millions inhabitants. This census is the fifth since the declaration of independence.

Regions
The kingdom of Morocco is composed of 16 main regions. As it follows :

1.Chaouia-Ouardigha
2.Doukkala-Abda
3.Fès-Boulemane
4.Gharb-Chrarda-Béni Hssen
5.Greater Casablanca
6.Guelmim-Es Semara
7.Laâyoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra
8.Marrakech-Tensift-El Haouz
9.Meknès-Tafilalet
10.Oriental
11.Oued Ed-Dahab-Lagouira
12.Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer
13.Souss-Massa-Draâ
14.Tadla-Azilal
15.Tangier-Tétouan
16.Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate

The Greater Casablanca is the most densely populated region with over 3.6 Million people (according to the 2004 census); it is considered the economic capital of Morocco as it condenses most of the economic activities of the country.

History
According to the artefacts dug out from the region of Casablanca and considered to be the oldest evidence ever found in North Africa, men have lived along the Moroccan Atlantic shores since 800, 000 BC.
Around 5000BC, new settlers coming from the Near East settled in Morocco and melted with the native inhabitants of the country. The new settlers are claimed to be the ancestors of the Berbers whose numbers increased through the evolution of Mediterranean relations.

Economy
Morocco is the fifth economic power of Africa with an annual GDP of $134 billion. Morocco's largest sources of income are the mining of phosphates, money transfers by Moroccans living abroad and tourism. Agriculture is one of the vital pillars in the Moroccan Economy. In 2005 and due to drought and a decline in the level of cereal harvest the Moroccan economy suffered a 4,2 % loss. The non-agricultural sectors of the Moroccan economy are expected to grow by 3%, which foster the expectation of the annual GDP to progress by 2, 6% in the coming years.

Languages
Morocco is a multilingual country; more than one dialect is spoken by its population in most places.

  • Classical Arabic

It is the language of the holy Qur’an and the official language of the country.  Classical Arabic is used in the educational, administration, cultural, and in the other official and intellectual fields in Morocco. Most Moroccans can understand this form of Arabic which is spoken and written much throughout the rest of the Middle East and North Africa. Most Arabic television programs are in this form of Arabic

  • Moroccan Dialect  

Everyday conversational language for the largest part of the population. This dialect was introduced to Morocco in consecutive waves especially with the troops and the educational influence coming from the East. This process resulted in the emergence of different yet very similar dialects spoken in the different regions of Morocco.

  • The Urban Dialect (Mdini) spoken in cities such Fez, Rabat, Sale and Tetouan;
  • The Bedouin Dialect known as (Aroubi) spoken in the regions of Gharb. Chaouïa, Doukkala, etc.
  • The Hassani: A form of Arabic dialect Spoken in the Shraoui regions.
  • Tamazight

It is the oldest language in the Maghreb region spoken by Berbers. It is spoken in three forms corresponding to three geographical locations:

  • Tamazight: practised by the population of the Middle Atlas
  • Tashelhit: practised by people in the South and the Small Atlas
  • Tarifit: spoken by the population of the North and the Rif  Mountains

Tifinnagh is the name of the Berber alphabet used to write down theses dialects.

  • Hassaniyya Arabic

A form of Arabic spoken in the Moroccan Sahara area.

  • French

This language is strongly present in Morocco since it was heavily used during the French protectorate in1912-1956. Since independence, French remained as an influential language in the country since it has been used within the educational and the economic domains. Part of the elite of educated Moroccans use French in their daily life, at work, in business or even at home.

  • Spanish

Similar to French Spanish was introduced to Morocco through the colonisation process. Now it is still spoken in the North and the Sahara since they were both colonized by Spanish Troops. Spanish is mainly used in part of the educational systems in these regions.

  • English

Following the rise of English as a global language, Morocco became very open to this language. Today many Moroccan institutions teach in English. Moreover, Moroccan people are also keen to learn and use English in different life aspects, especially in research, science, technology and business.

 

 
 
 
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